lang change

Our language

Ovo je stara šala u kojoj je jedan "lingvista" otkrio pre 20 godina da mi nemamo samo jedan jezik u Jugoslaviji već 6 jezika: srpski, hrvatski, bosanski, hercegovački, crnski i gorski jezik. Ovo je nekad bilo smešno ali danas ovo više nije tako daleko od istine. This is the old joke in which some "linguist" discovered 20 years ago that we don't have only one language in Yugoslavia but 6 of them: Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Herzegovinian, Monte and Negro language. This used to be funny but today this is not far from the truth any more.
Jeste li nekad čuli za pojam Balkanizacija? To je globalni pojam, nije vezan samo za Balkan. Da li znate zašto Srbi imaju dva pisma? Kako je moguće da imamo toliko jezika na ovim prostorima a da savršeno razumemo jedni druge? Zašto izmišljamo nove reči samo da bismo bili različiti? Zašto ponekad pišemo dj umesto đ ali nikad ne pišemo tj ili cj umesto ć? Da li su svi Srbi pravoslavci? Kako smo došli do ovoga? Ako ne želite da se petljate sa novijom istorijom Balkana onda kliknite ovde i nastavite da verujete u šta god želite da verujete ili ostanite u Zemlji čuda, nastavite da čitate a ja ću vam pokazati koliko je duboka zekina rupa. Have you ever heard for the term Balkanization? It's a global term, not related just to Balkan peninsula. Do you know why Serbs have two alphabets? How is it possible that we have so many languages in these lands and we perfectly understand each other? Why are we inventing new words just to be different? Why we sometimes write dj instead of đ but we never write tj or cj instead of ć? Are all the Serbs orthodox? How did we come to this? Well, if you don't want to bother with recent history of Balkan then click here and continue to believe whatever you want to believe, or you can stay in Wonderland, keep reading this and I'll show you how deep the rabbit hole goes.
Sa jezičke tačke gledišta sve je počelo od Svetog Ćirila i njegove glagoljice i ćirilice, najstarijih slovenskih pisama. Od tada pa sve do pada Srbije pod Osmansku imperiju sve knjige From the linguistic point of view everything started with Saint Cyril and his Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets, the oldest Slavic alphabets. Since then till the fall of Serbia under the Ottoman Empire all the books

Miroslavljevo jevanđelje

Dušanov zakonik

Dušanov zakonik
su pisane u jednom od ova dva pisma, u Srbiji uglavnom na ćirilici a u današnjoj Hrvatskoj na glagoljici. Pod Turcima smo imali jedan period blagostanja sa despotom Stefanom Lazarevićem na čelu a kada je napustio tron, 500 godina ničega osim borbe za život. A onda je došlo vreme da oteramo Turke sa naših prostora u dva ustanka na čelu sa Karađorđem Petrovićem i kasnije sa Milošem Obrenovićem. Srpski lingvista Vuk Karadžić je živeo u tom periodu srpske istorije kada se još uvek koristilo staro ćirilično pismo (bar ono malo ljudi koji su znali da čitaju i pišu) napravljeno za staroslovenski jezik koji više niko nije koristio izvan crkava i manastira. were written on one of these two alphabets, in Serbia most of them in Cyrillic and in today's Croatia in Glagolitic alphabet. Under Turks we had one period of prosperity with Despot Stefan Lazarević and when he left the throne, 500 years of nothing but struggle to survive. And then came the time to push the Turks out from our lands with two uprisings led by Karađorđe Petrović and later on by Miloš Obrenović. Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić lived in that part of Serbian history when we still used the old Cyrillic alphabet (those few who knew how to read and write) made for the Old Church Slavic language that nobody used any more outside churches and monasteries.
Možete da zamislite koliko je bilo teško napisati ili pročitati nešto u prostom jeziku seljaka tj. narodnom jeziku. Pre Velike seobe Srba (1690 - 1739) jezik koji smo koristili u državnim i crkvenim knjigama (srpskoslovenski) je imao mnogo više toga zajedničkog sa narodnim jezikom, ali je posle seobe korišćen jezik koji je sličan ili skoro identičan ruskom jeziku (ruskoslovenski).You can imagine how difficult it was to write or read anything in the simple language of peasants i.e. folk language. Before the Great Exodus (1690 - 1739) language we used in books (srpskoslovenski) has much more in common with the folk speech but after that the language changed into something similar or almost identical to the Russian language (ruskoslovenski).
Prema tome Vuk i nije imao drugog izbora nego da uzme svakodnevni narodni jezik za zvanični književni jezik i novo pismo koje je napravio, ali nije dovršio, Sava Mrkalj (koji je govorio latinski i francuski i razumeo grčki i hebrejski jezik). Therefore Vuk had no other options but to use the common folk speech for the official Literary language and also new alphabet made, but not finished, by Sava Mrkalj (who was able to speak Latin and French and understood Greek and Hebrew).
Da li se Crkva bunila? Naravno! Još neko? Da, i još uvek se bune. S novim pismom koje je Vuk napravio (ili pozajmio ili uredio, kako god želite) srpskom ćirilicom sa 30 slova i jednostavnim pravilom "jedan glas jedno slovo" imali smo suprotan problem. Bilo je jako jednostavno naučiti čitati i pisati ali mnoge reči koje smo koristili u staroslovenskom jeziku su bile izgubljene i zaboravljene pošto više ne možemo da čitamo stare tekstove bez prevoda. Stoga smo morali da popunimo praznine rečima pozajmljenim iz stranih jezika: nemačkog, engleskog, grčkog i turskog i još uvek imamo manjak reči čak i za neke osnovne stvari. Did church complain? Of course! Somebody else? Yes, and they still do. With the new alphabet that Vuk made (or borrowed or standardized if you will), Serbian Cyrillic with 30 letters and the simple rule "one voice one letter" we had the opposite problem. It was really easy to learn how to read and write but many words that we used in Old Slavic language were lost and forgotten since we cannot read that text any more without translation. So we had to fill the holes with words we borrowed from foreign languages: German, English, Greek and Turkish and we still have a lack of words even for the basic things.
Inače, pravilo "piši kao što govoriš i čitaj kao što je napisano" nije izmislio Vuk. Nemački filolog Johan Hristof Adelung je pokušao da uradi sa nemačkim pismom ono što je Vuk uradio sa srpskim ali 50 godina pre Vuka. I nije uspeo. Na vama je da odlučite da li je bolje da napravite temeljnu reformu tj. revoluciju i date šansu celom narodu da nauči da piše i čita za par dana nego da izvršite evoluciju i zadržite kontinuitet sa starim jezikom uz rizik da će vaša reforma propasti na kraju.By the way, the rule "write as you speak and read as it is written" is not Vuk's invention. German philologist Johann Christoph Adelung tried to do with German alphabet what Vuk did with Serbian but 50 years before Vuk. And he failed. It's up to you to decide whether it's better to make the radical reform i.e. revolution and give the opportunity to the entire people to learn to read and write in a couple of days than to made the evolution and keep the continuity with the old language with a risk that your reform will fail at the end.
Dakle, Vuk je standardizovao jezik i uveo novo pismo, srpsku ćirilicu. A šta je sa latinicom? Jel nas Austrija naterala da je koristimo u prvom svetskom ratu, ili Hitler, ili nevladine organizacije ili ...? Ne, Vuk ju je napravio. Ako pogledate tabelu Alphabeti Serborum So, Vuk standardized the language and introduced new Serbian Cyrillic alphabet. And what about Latin alphabet? Did Austria force us to use it in WW1, or Hitler, or NGOs or ...? No, Vuk made it. If you check the table Alphabeti Serborum
u njegovoj knjizi "Srpski Rječnik" izdatoj 1818. videćete je u drugoj koloni ali ćete takođe videti i hrvatsko pismo u 4. koloni. Obratite pažnju da skoro da nema razlike između tadašnjeg hrvatskog i mađarskog pisma. Pa zašto je to uradio? in his book "Srpski Rječnik" published in 1818 you will see it in the second column but you will also see the Croatian alphabet in the 4th column. Notice that there are almost no differences between Croatian and Hungarian alphabets. So, why he did it then?
Nisu svi Srbi bili pravoslavci u to vreme. Mnogi su prešli u islam da bi izbegli ugnjetavanje ili jednostavno da ne plate neke poreze. Zato danas imamo toliko muslimana u Bosni u na jugu Srbije. Mehmed Paša Sokolović je rođen u Bosni, prešao je u islam (ne svojom voljom) i 14 godina je bio veliki vezir (nešto kao predsednik vlade) u Osmanskom carstvu. A šta s Hrvatskom ili barem prostorom koji danas zauzima država Hrvatska? Jeste li nekad čuli za Vojnu granicu? Not all Serbs were Orthodox at that time. Many of them turned to Islam in order to avoid oppression or simply not to pay some taxes. That's why we have so many Muslims today in Bosnia and southern Serbia. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha was born in Bosnia and converted into Islam (not on his will) and he was Grand Vizier (something like a prime minister) in the Ottoman Empire for 14 years. What about Croatia, or at least the land that we call Croatia today? Ever heard for Military Frontier?
To je bilo granično područje Austrougarske monarhije koje je služilo za odbranu od Osmanskog carstva. Polovina vojnika su bili Srbi i ako ne želite da gutate prašinu svaki dan i želite da napredujete u vojnoj hijerarhiji tj. nadate se većem činu, moraćete da pređete u katoličanstvo. Vuk je živeo na sumraku osmanske imperije i posle 500 godina turske vladavine imali smo mnogo Srba muslimana u Bosni i Srba katolika u Vojnoj granici. Srpska pravoslavna crkva ih više nije priznavala za Srbe i, da stvar bude još gora, ovi ljudi većinom nisu bili obični seljaci; oni su bili krem društva koji je promenio religiju da bi se popeo na društvenoj lestvici a jedan narod ne sme tako lako da se odrekne svoje elite. That was a borderland of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy against incursions from the Ottoman Empire. Half of soldiers there were Serbs and if you don't want to eat the dust every day and you want to progress in the military structure i.e. you hope for a higher rank, you will have to turn to Catholicism. Vuk lived at the dusk of the Ottoman Empire and after 500 years of Ottoman rule we had a lot of Serbs Muslims in Bosnia and Serbs Catholics in the Military Frontier. Serbian Orthodox Church did not recognize them as Serbs any more and what's even worse, most of these people weren't ordinary peasants; they were the cream of the society that changed the religion to climb the social ladder and one people cannot so easily abandon its establishment.
Nisu hteli da prihvate svoju staru religiju, pravoslavno hrišćanstvo, jer bi onda imali mnogo većih problema sa Vatikanom ili Istanbulom. Vuk je takođe tvrdio da nisu hteli da koriste reformisano srpsko pismo pa je morao da napravi novo latinsko sa istim principom "jedan glas jedno slovo" za njih pa je i napravio novo pismo kao što je prikazano u njegovoj knjizi izdatoj 1827. Prvi Srpski Bukvar u tabeli Alphabeti Serbici, druga kolona They didn't want to accept their previous religion, Orthodox Christianity, because they might have much bigger problems then with Vatican or Istanbul. Vuk also claimed they didn't want to use reformed Cyrillic alphabet so he had to create a Latin one with the same principle "one voice one letter" for them so he made a new alphabet as shown in his book published in 1827 Prvi Srpski Bukvar in the table Alphabeti Serbici, second column
tj. reformisao je latinski alfabet i to je ono što mi zovemo danas Latinica i koristi se u Hrvatskoj, Bosni, Crnoj Gori i Srbiji.i.e. he reformed the Latin alphabet as well and that's what we call Latinica today and it's used in Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Serbia.
Vuk nije znao da ovo nije bio prvi srpski bukvar. Prvi je napravio Inok Sava, kaluđer manastira Dečani, i štampan je u Veneciji 1597. godine. Dakle bukvar Inoka Save potiče iz vremena kad je jako malo evropskih država i kultura posedovalo pomagala za škole i pisanje. Ovaj bukvar najviše oduševljava svojim metodama učenja jer je bio prvi u Evropi koji je primenio fonetski način čitanja. Na nesreću bio je potpuno nepoznat sve to 1893. godine. Vuk did not know that this was not the first Serbian syllabary. It was made by Inok Sava, a monk of the monastery Dečani, and was printed in Venice in 1597. The syllabary of Inok Sava originates from the time when very few European countries and cultures possessed their own teaching aids. The syllabary fascinates the most with its teaching methods, because it was the first in Europe to have applied the principle of phonetic reading. Unfortunately it has been unknown to all until 1893.
Da se vratimo na Vukov bukvar jer se sad pitate "Šta je Illyr.?"
Ljudi koji su prešli u islam i katoličanstvo nisu više sebe zvali Srbima. Oni takođe nisu bili ni Hrvati ni Turci. Jednostavno su se identifikovali sa gradom ili područjem na kojem su živeli: Goranci, Dubrovčani, Slavonci, Dalmatinci, Bosanci i ponekad Bunjevci ili Šokci a Austrijanci su ih zvali Ilirima iako nisu imali ništa zajedničko sa Ilirima koji su nekad živeli na istom prostoru, zapadnom Balkanu, pre 15 vekova. Vuk je štampao sve svoje knjige u Beču pa je jednostavno koristio austrijske nazive.
Back to the Vuk's "bukvar" cause now you ask yourself "What is Illyr.?"
People that turned to Islam and Catholicism did not call themselves Serbs. They were not Croats or Turks either. They simply identified themselves with the town or area where they lived: Dubrovčani, Slavonci, Dalmatinci, Bosanci and sometimes Bunjevci or Šokci and Austrians called them Illyrians although they did not have anything with Illyrians that used to live in the same area, western Balkan, 15 centuries ago. Vuk printed all the books in Vienna so he simply took Austrian terms.
Primetićete da latinično pismo ne primenjuje sva pravila koja imamo u ćirilici. Četiri slova su dupla dž, dj, lj i nj a četiri slova nisu napisana "u jednom komadu" ć, č, š i ž. Vuk jednostavno nije završio reformu latinice verovatno zbog velike kritike pravoslavne crkve. Već je bio navukao njen bes kad je u ćirilicu ubacio latinično slovo J. Kasnije je Đura Daničić pokušao da završi ono što je Vuk započeo i da dj, lj, nj, dž zameni sa đ, ļ, ń, ģ ali je samo dj -> đ prihvaćeno a mnogi i danas pišu dj umesto đ iako je nepravilno već 150 godina. You will notice that Latin alphabet does not follow all the rules we have in Cyrillic alphabet. Four letters are double dž, dj, lj and nj and four letters are not written "in one piece" ć, č, š and ž. Vuk simply did not finnish the reform of the Latin alphabet probably because of all the criticism he got from the Orthodox church. They were already too angry when he imported the letter J into Cyrillic from the Latin alphabet. Later on Đura Daničić tried to finnish what Vuk started so he tried to replace dj, lj, nj, dž with đ, ļ, ń, ģ but only dj -> đ was accepted and many people even today writes dj instead of đ although it's not correct for more than 150 years.
Bečki književni dogovor je održan u martu 1850. godine u Beču i to je bio sastanak pisaca iz Hrvatske, Srbije i Slovenije koji je postavio osnovicu za novi književni jezik jedinstven za ceo prostor, srpsko-hrvatski jezik. Učesnici su bili 5 Hrvata, 2 Srbina i jedan čovek iz Slovenije. Zašto toliko Hrvata? Jezik Hrvata je bio u pravom haosu pre tog sastanka. Jedan od učesnika, Ivan Kukljević, je rekao: "Cela inteligencija priča latinski, sve žene pričaju nemački a aristokratija je poslala svoje sinove u Mađarsku da uče mađarski." Uzeli su štokavsko narečje i ijekavski dijalekat za osnovu novog jezika. Hrvati treba da se otarase kajkavskog i čakavskog narečja a Srbi da prestanu da koriste staroslovenski jezik. Dakle svako je nešto dobio i izgubio. Vienna Literary Agreement held in March 1850 in Vienna and that was a meeting with writers from Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia who set the firm ground for the new common literary language unigue for the entire area, Serbo-Croatian language. Participants were 5 Croats, 2 Serbs and one guy from Slovenia. Why so many Croats? Croatian language was in real mess before that meeting. One of the participants, Ivan Kukljević said: "Complete inteligence speaks Latin, all women speak German and aristocracy has sent their sons to Hungary to learn Hungarian." They used Štokavian dialect and Ijekavian accent to be the base for the new language. Croats will get rid of Kajkavian and Chakavian dialects and Serbs will stop using Old Slavic language. So everyone gained and lost something.
Još jedan bitan događaj je bio Novosadski dogovor održan u decembru 1954. godine. U dogovoru se ironično kaže da budući jezik, srpsko-hrvatski, treba da se razvije prirodno iako je bio skovan pod političkim pritiskom i silama iz oba područja, ekavskog i ijekavskog. Dakle šta je to "prirodno" trebalo da se promeni posle ovog događaja:
1. Svi moraju da koriste taj i samo taj jezik iako mnogi ljudi u Hrvatskoj govore neke jezike koji nisu ni slični današnjem hrvatskom jeziku
2. U celoj Jugoslaviji oba pisma će biti ravnopravno korišćena.
Another one important event was Novi Sad Agreement held in December 1954. The agreement ironically stated that the future language, Serbo-Croatian, should develop naturally, although it was being forged by the force of political will and pressure from both dialects. So what "naturally" should have changed after this event:
1. Everyone must use this and only this language although many people in Croatia talks something that is not even similar to todays Croatian
2. In the entire Yugoslavia both alphabets will be used equally.
Dakle opet je svako nešto dobio i izgubio. Prvi zaključak je bio veliki poraz za Hrvate a drugi za Srbe pošto Hrvati nikad nisu stvarno koristili ćirilicu a danas pokušavaju da povrate nazad sve reči koje su izgubili posle Bečkog književnog dogovora a takođe izmišljaju i nove reči za nove pojmove (forehand -> prednjak, backhand -> zadnjak, offside -> zaleđe) samo da imaju jezik različit od srpskog koliko god je moguće dok Srbi uvoze reči iz engleskog čak i kad već imaju odgovarajuću srpsku reč (edukacija -> obrazovanje, bilateralan -> dvostran, konsekvenca -> posledica itd.). So again everyone gained and lost something. The first "conclusion" was a big defeat for Croats and the second one for Serbs since Croats never really used Cyrillic alphabet and today they are trying to retrieve back all the words they lost after the Vienna Literary Agreement and they are also inventing new words for new terms (forehand -> prednjak, backhand -> zadnjak, offside -> zaleđe) just to have the language different than Serbian as mush as possible while Serbs are importing them from English even when we already have appropriate Serbian word (edukacija -> obrazovanje, bilateralan -> dvostran, konsekvenca -> posledica etc.).
Nakon što se Jugoslavija raspala u pet država naslednica, sa ovim novim državama dobili smo i nove jezike: srpski, hrvatski, bosanski i crnogorski jezik. Hrvati su izbacili ćirilicu zajedno sa 250.000 Srba koje su proterali iz dela bivše Vojne granice u današnjoj Hrvatskoj. Koriste latinicu koju je Vuk napravio, ali tvrde da je nju u stvari stvorio hrvatski lingvista Ljudevit Gaj, a ne Vuk, i da je bazirana na češkom pismu. Ma da naravno! Vlada Crne Gore radi sličnu stvar, prešli su na latinično pismo i uveli su tri nova slova. Bosanski muslimani takođe tvrde da imaju svoj poseban jezik, bosanski, iako nema ama baš nikakve razlike između tog izmišljenog jezika i srpskog na bilo koji način. Ali nema problema, napraviće razliku ubacivanjem što više turskih reči. Ne brinite ništa, mi smo prilično navikli na sve ovo. After Yugoslavia is dissolved into five successor states, with these new states we also got new languages: Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin language. Croats have thrown out the Cyrillic alphabet together with 250.000 Serbs they pushed out from the part of ex Military Frontier in today's Croatia. They use the Latin alphabet that Vuk made but they claim that Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj made it, not Vuk, and that he based it on the Czech alphabet. Yeah sure! The government of Montenegro do the similar thing, they switched to Latin alphabet and invented three new letters. Bosnian Muslims now claim that they have their own language, Bosnian, although there is no any difference between that imagined language and Serbian in any way. So, no problem, they will make them by importing Turkish words as mush as possible. But don't worry, we are pretty much used to this.
"Povelju Kulina bana" je napisao na srpskom jeziku i na ćirilici 1189. godine Kulin ban, vladar zemlje Bosne, Srbin. Danas neke osobe tvrde da pismo koje je koristio nije srpska ćirilica već bosanska "bosančica" iako nema skoro nikakve razlike i neki od njih čak i tvrde da je to deo hrvatskog kulturnog nasleđa. Verovatno je jedina istina: nije bilo nikakvih pravila ni standarda u to vreme, svako je pisao svojom vrstom ćiriličnog pisma. Sad znate šta znači pojam "balkanizacija" - "proces podele i usitnjavanja regiona ili države na manje regione i države koji su često neprijateljski raspoloženi i ne sarađuju jedni s drugima." Ovo imamo u programskim jezicima, u softveru generalno, političkim partijama, svuda i na globalnom nivou. "Povelja Kulina bana" is written in Serbian language and in Serbian Cyrillic in 1189. by the Ban Kulin, the ruler of Bosnia, Serb. Today certain individuals claim that the alphabet he used is not Serbian Cyrillic but Bosnian "bosančica" although there is almost no difference and some of them even claim that this is the part of Croatian heritage. Probably the only one truth is: there were no rules or standards whatsoever at that time, everyone used its own type of Cyrillic alphabet. Now you know what the term Balkanization means, "the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other." We have this with programming languages, software in general, political parties, everywhere and on global level today.
Zaključak:
Hrvati su nekad imali neki jezik prilično drugačiji od srpskog ali posle Bečkog književnog dogovora taj jezik je skoro nestao i današnji hrvatski je mnogo sličniji srpskom jeziku nego nemački jezik koji se koristi na severu i jugu Nemačke.
Conclusion:
Croats used to have some language pretty much different from Serbian but after Vienna Literary Agreement that language almost dissapeared and todays Croatian is more similar to Serbian than German language on the north and the south of Germany.
Danas ljudi koji žive u zelenom delu Hrvatske (na gornjoj mapi), u celoj Bosni, Srbiji i Crnoj Gori govore istim jezikom i možete ga zvati kako god hoćete. Među nama zovemo ga srpski, hrvatski ili bosanski ali izvan YU prostora to je samo "naš jezik" ili naški. Šta se desilo sa Ilirima? Tokom 2. sv. rata u NDH Srbi katolici su asimilacijom pretvoreni u Hrvate ili su ih ustaše pobile. Tokom ere SFRJ Tito je bosanske muslimane priznao kao novi narod nazvan jednostavno Muslimani koji su se posle raspada SFRJ "prekrstili" u Bošnjake. Tako je ceo Vukov napor da napravi pismo za Srbe nepravoslavce kao vezu sa njihovim narodom propao i pušten niz vodu. Danas se srpski filmovi prikazuju u Hrvatskoj sa prevodom. Sada možete ponovo pogledati filmić na vrhu strane. Today people who live on the green part of Croatia (on the map above), in whole Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro speak the same language, you can call it however you want. Between us we call it Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian but outside ex-YU it's just "our language" (naš jezik or naški). What happened with Illyrians? During WW2 in NDH Serbs Catholics have been asimilated into Croatian nation or they were killed by Ustaše. During the era of SFRY Tito recognized Bosnian Muslims as a new nation simply called Muslims and after breakout of SFRY they "baptized" themselves as Bosniaks. So complete Vuk's effort to make an alphabet for non Orthodox Serbs as a link with their own people went down the toilet. Today Serbian movies are screened in Croatia with subtitle. Now play again the video on the top of the page.