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Imperative


The imperative form of verbs is very often used in direct speech, when one wants to command, ask, request, prohibit, etc. Because of its use, it appears in the 2nd p.sg., and the 1st and 2nd p.pl. The imperative is formed in the following way

1) reduced present stem + 2) imperative suffixes
1) Imperative is formed from the reduced present stem by dropping the suffix (-u, -e, or -ju) from the 3rd p.pl. in the present tense. (e.g. Oni dođ-u. Oni rad-e. Oni peva-ju.)
2) There are two siffixes in the imperative which are the most frequent. These suffixes depend on whether the stem ends in a consonant (Type I) or in a vowel (Type II).

  2. p. sg. 1. p. pl. 2. p. pl.
Type I -i -imo -ite
Type II -j -jmo -jte

A command or request may also be expressed for the third person, both in singular and plural. There is no special imperative, but the verbal phrase is presented in the following way:
NEKA + the 3. p. sg. / pl. of the present tense

doći
sg. pl.
1.   1. Dođimo!
2. Dođi! 2. Dođite!
3. (Neka dođe!) 3. (Neka dođu!)


raditi
sg. pl.
1.   1. Radimo!
2. Radi! 2. Radite!
3. (Neka radi!) 3. (Neka rade!)


pevati
sg. pl.
1.   1. Pevajmo!
2. Pevaj! 2. Pevajte!
3. (Neka peva!) 3. (Neka pevaju!)


Verbs that have a stem ending in K or G in front of the imperative suffixes -i, -imo and -ite have the alternations K>C, G>Z in the root.
e.g. K>C Peku, seku > Peci! Seci!
G>Z Pomognu > Pomozi!

The negative form

The imperative is negated by adding NE in front of the verb.

pevati
sg. pl.
1.   1. Ne pevajmo!
2. Ne pevaj! 2. Ne pevajte!
3. (Neka ne peva!) 3. (Neka ne pevaju!)


1) By introducing NE, the negative form of the imperative can be formed only with imperfective verbs.
2) The imperative can also be negated by adding NEMOJ, NEMOJMO and NEMOJTE plus the infinitive, or the two words construction DA + present tense. This type of imperative can be formed either with perfective or imperfective verbs.

doći
sg. pl.
1.   1. Nemojmo doći!
Nemojmo da dođemo!
2. Nemoj doći!
Nemoj da dođeš!
2. Nemojte doći!
Nemojte da dođete!


raditi
sg. pl.
1.   1. Nemojmo raditi!
Nemojmo da radimo!
2. Nemoj raditi!
Nemoj da radiš!
2. Nemojte raditi!
Nemojte da radite!


Reflexive verbs in imperative

The affirmative form :

šetati se
sg. pl.
1.   1. Šetajmo se!
2. Šetaj se! 2. Šetajte se!
3. (Neka se šeta!) 3. (Neka se šetaju!)


1) The morpheme SE appears in the second position, after the main verb.
2) In the 3rd p. (both in singular and plural), the morpheme SE follows the particle NEKA.
The negative form :

šetati se
sg. pl.
1.   1. Ne šetajmo se!
2. Ne šetaj se! 2. Ne šetajte se!
3. (Neka se ne šeta!) 3. (Neka se ne šetaju!)


1) The morpheme SE follows the negative form of the verb.
2) In the 3rd p. (both in the singular and the plural) the morpheme SE follows the particle NEKA, and precedes the negation NE.

šetati se
sg. pl.
1.   1. Nemojmo se šetati!
Nemojmo da se šetamo!
2. Nemoj se šetati!
Nemoj da se šetaš!
2. Nemojte se šetati!
Nemojte da se šetate!


1) The morpheme SE is placed in the second position, after the verbs NEMOJ, NEMOJMO, NEMOJTE.
2) If the construction DA + the present tense is used, the morpheme SE is placed after the conjunction DA. You can try below what you have just lernt. Write your answer and press Enter
Fill in the gaps with the appropriate forms of the verbs given in brackets.
prozor! Nema vazduha. OTVORITI
Milice, meso. JESTI
Jovane, molim te, u spavaću sobu i donesi mi naočare. IĆI
Marina i Jovane, kod nas u goste. DOĆI
Pre nego što dođete, me telefonom, da proverite da li sam kod kuće. POZVATI

Put the verbs into the imperative.
Mi/pevati lepo. lepo!
Ti/slušati dobro. dobro!
Vi/učiti. !
On/gledati. Neka !
Oni/skrenuti levo. levo!
Vi/govoriti glasno. glasno!
Mi/pisati čitko. čitko!
Ona/jesti polako. polako!
Ti/popeti se. !
Vi/doći. !

Turn the following imperatives into the commands given to a third person.
Example: Otvori prozor! Neka otvori prozor!
Otvorite prozor! Neka otvore prozor!
Čitaj knjigu! Neka knjigu!
Vozi polako! polako!
Pozdravite Milana! Milana!
Odgovorite na pitanje! na pitanje!
Dođi u sredu! u sredu!
Idi u prodavnicu! u prodavnicu!

Give an instruction to both a) a friend and b) and elderly woman
on how he or she can make "Turkish coffee". Make use of the given verbs and expressions.
Sipati vodu u džezvu. Staviti šećera po potrebi. Kuvati dok ne proključa. Dodati dve male kašike kafe. Promešati. Kad počne da raste, sklonite sa šporeta.
a)
vodu u džezvu!
po potrebi!
!
kašike kafe!
!
Kad počne da raste, !
b)
vodu u džezvu!
po potrebi!
!
kašike kafe!
!
Kad počne da raste, !

Negate the following imperative verb forms (use both ways, where possible).
Example: Čitaj!
Ne čitaj!
Nemoj da čitaš!

Piši!


Dođi!


Zatvori!


Gledaj!


Pij!


Jedi!


Prevedi!


Odgovori!